Greek and Latin Terms

Brace (Latin/Celtic) – a type of grain used by the Celts for brewing beer; later: malted grain

Brutos (Greek) – Beer, originally Phrygian and Thracian

Bromos (Greek) – oats (Avena sativa)

Caelia (Latin) – a Numantian or Iberian beer

Camum (Latin) – A certain type of beer, originally Celtic?

Cerevisia (Latin) – Beer, originally Celtic. Also, cervisia, cervesia, cerevisa, cervesa

Cupa (Latin) – barrel, vat tun, task

Fermentum (Latin) – that which produces leavening, fermentation

Furta (Latin) – barley beer, only used once in Latin (6th c. CE)

Frumentum (Latin) – grain, crops

Frux (Latin) – produce, grain

Hordeum (Latin) – grain. Also ordeum

Kengchros (Greek) – millet (panicum miliaceum)

Krithe (Greek) – barley

Korma (Greek/Latin) – Beer, Celtic. Also, κουρμι, korma, curmen, curmi

Milium (Latin) – millet

Oinos Krithinos (Greek) – barley wine

Parabias (Greek/Illyrian) – millet beer from Paeonia

Sabaia (Latin/Illyrian) – a beer made from barley and other grains

Triticum (Roman) – wheat

Zythos (Greek) – barley beer; beer of the Egyptians. Latinized: zythum.


Cyperos (Latin) – cyperus esculentum; tiger nuts (an adjunct in Egyptian barley beer)

Erica (Greek/Latin) – heather, erica spp.

Inula (Latin) – various species of inula (an adjunct in millet beer)

Konuza (Greek) – various species of inula or fleabane (an adjunct in millet beer)

Malinathalle (Greek) – cyperus esculentum; tiger nuts (an adjunct in Egyptian barley beer)

Oenanthe (Greek/Latin) – possibly meadowsweet

Archaeological Terms

Beer Stone – Calcum Oxalate; a residue produced as a byproduct of beer production

Residue Analysis – the analysis of archaeological materials for evidence of organic residues

Beer Archaeology

Hubbard Amphora – Early Iron Age Cypriot amphora depicting an enthroned man drinking liquid from a straw; beer?

Pelusium – Egyptian port-town famous for its beer production.